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Hymenoplasty, which is also referred to as hymenorrhaphy,hymen reconstruction, hymen repair, hymen restoration, hymen surgery, and revirgination, is the most popular term describing surgery to reestablish the integrity of the hymen.
None. Repair has no direct medical benefit. Absence of the hymen or failure to bleed is not necessarily a sign of previous intercourse. Studies have shown that over 40% did not bleed at first intercourse and intact hymen has been reported in 52% with prior intercourse. Also the procedure of hymenoplasty does not guarantee bleeding on intercourse. There are many reasons why a woman might consider undergoing a hymenoplasty procedure. Some of the reasons for having hymenoplasty include :
Cultural or religious reasons: In some cultures, having an intact hymen is very significant as it acts as a signifier of the chastity of a woman. Whether during sexual activity or otherwise, a woman’s hymen can tear. Having cosmetic surgery to restore the hymen is a way of proving virginity and chastity.
Psychological healing: If a woman has suffered rape or sexual abuse, it is very likely that her hymen will have torn. As a way to repair the psychological damage of this kind of abuse, some women choose to have hymen surgery to restore them both physically and mentally to the time before the abuse.
Injury to the hymen: For some women, having an intact hymen that becomes broken during a first sexual experience is very important. In some instances, the hymen can tear before intercourse. Use of tampons and vigorous exercise can all tear the hymen, and in the case of a hymen being torn because of these activities,hymenoplasty offers a surgical solution.
Revirgination:When a woman begins a relationship with a new partner but has already brokenher hymen during sexual intercourse, she may wish to have her hymen surgically restructured.
The timing of anticipated coitus may play a role in selecting a surgical approach. For patients who desire structural integrity and need the hymen to be intact on visual inspection, the repair should be performed 3 months before the “consummation of marital vows.” However, when the timing of coitus is known, and the patient desires bleeding but visual integrity is not needed. Surgery is often best scheduled 3 weeks before the date.
The choice of procedure is decided by the surgeon based on desired outcome and time till marriage. The most common procedures are flap technique, surgical adhesion, luminal reduction and suture only techniques. It is performed as a day care procedure under local anesthesia with sedation or preferably under general anesthesia due to the anxiety of the procedure involved. All techniques achieve the same goal of forming adhesions between hymen remnants and narrowing the introitus.
Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) is known by a variety of names, including gender reassignment surgery (GRS), sex change surgery, sex affirmation procedures, and genital reconstruction surgery. These procedures, which are known clinically as genitoplasty procedures, are done to surgically change the genitalia from one gender to another.
For most patients undergoing SRS, the surgery is performed in order to match their physical gender with what they feel emotionally and intuitively is their true gender. This condition, known as gender dysphoria or gender identity disorder, is rare but becoming more widely diagnosed. You may also hear these people being referred to as "transgender."
The procedures that change male genitalia to female genitalia include a penectomy (removal of penis) and orchiectomy (removal of the testes), which are typically followed by a vaginoplasty (creation of the vagina) or a feminizing genitoplasty (creation of female genitalia).
For those born male and transitioning to female, there may also be procedures that include breast implants, gluteoplasty to increase buttock volume, a procedure to minimize the appearance of the Adam's apple, and possibly, feminizing hormones. Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is often done to soften the more masculine lines of the face. Each patient is unique and the procedures that are done are based on the individual need and budget, but facial feminization often includes softening the brow line, rhinoplasty (nose job), smoothing the jaw and forehead, and altering the cheek bones. For some, a chondrolaryngoplasty, commonly known as a "tracheal shave," can help reduce the prominence of the Adam's apple.
The procedure that changes female genitalia to male genitalia is a masculinizing genitoplasty (creation of male genitalia). This procedure uses the tissue of the labia to create a penis.
The procedures that change the genitalia are rarely performed without other procedures, which may be extensive. For those born female, the change to a masculine appearance may also include hormone therapy with testosterone, a mastectomy, a hysterectomy procedure, and perhaps additional cosmetic procedures intended to masculinize the appearance.